Axis 2 : Characterization

The characterization will encompass all stages, from the initial precursor to their integration into possible functional nanostructures, via synthesis intermediates or the individual nano-objects.

The objective of the characterization axis is to support the understanding of

1) the mechanisms of formation of nano-objects in solution,

2) the structure/property relationships of nano-objects with, ultimately, an optimization objective in view of innovative applications.

It will provide observables that can be used by the theories that will be tested (Axis 3 “Theory”), and concrete data that can be used for applications (Theme C “Implementation”).

To achieve this, we will take on a certain number of recognized scientific challenges: achieving multiscale characterizations (Angstrom-millimeter) resolved in time (picosecond-month) and in situ-operando (in solution during synthesis, or in complex environments after integration into functional nanostructures), by establishing a clear link between measurements on individual nanoparticles and overall measurements on typically 1017 nanoparticles.

Practically, this GDR will stimulate interactions between chemists, theoreticians and experts in routine to medium-heavy laboratory techniques (spectroscopies from infrared to UV, NMR, electron microscopies, diffusion/X-ray diffraction), up to techniques accessible only in synchrotron (EXAFS, ultrafast SAXS/WAXS, soft X microscopy, total diffusion). Beyond a synergy between existing expertise, this GDR will create new expertise taking advantage of new generation synchrotrons (coherent diffusion/diffraction, ptychography, SAXS/microfluidics coupling), the appearance of new laboratory techniques previously only reserved to synchrotrons (beginning of “benchtop” X-ray absorption spectroscopy, hard X-ray sources for total diffusion), and the rise of artificial intelligence and derived techniques (assisted data acquisition and processing, multivariate characterizations , coupling characterizations/properties.